Last year ETFO commissioned OISE/UT professor Ken Leithwood to examine the current research on what teacher working conditions will improve student learning. Leithwood’s book, Teacher Working Conditions that Matter, was the starting point for a symposium held in June that brought together researchers and leaders of teacher unions from Canada, the United States, and England, along with Ministry of Education and school board staff and trustees.
Dr. Leithwood presented a short synopsis of his ﬁndings on how teachers feel and how what they know affects what they do. The systems in which they work inﬂuence their feelings and their knowledge. He observed that “the constant stream of changes that we’ve introduced into schools [have] a pretty damaging effect on the amount of conﬁdence teachers feel and their ability to actually do this work. They are constantly being deskilled by the change initiative.”
Certain working conditions matter more
Using his research from North Carolina, Eric Hirsch showed how the ﬁve categories of teacher working conditions that matter – professional development, empowerment, leadership, time, and facilities and resources – are directly linked to teacher retention and satisfaction.
Alma Harris from the University of Warwick, England, made her message very clear: “School leadership matters.” Harris sees school leadership as “transformative, widely shared or distributed, and [something that] creates new ideas about instruction.” She believes that optimizing the structures, spaces, and time for teachers to collaborate is an essential teacher working condition. Equally important is the creation of opportunities for teachers to lead innovations in teaching and learning.
Joseph Murphy of Vanderbilt University examined the topic from another perspective. He acknowledged, as did the other speakers, that the role of the principal is key. The principal is a facilitator but the impetus for change comes from teachers themselves. In his view the transfer of organizational power to teachers, a focus on positive collegial relationships, and the creation of structures to support teacher interaction and teacher learning are the engines that drive this new era of school improvement.
In Britain, in spite of increased funding and multiple initiatives, the emphasis on test results and the introduction of business models into schools have caused a crisis in leadership and retention difﬁculties, according to Christine Blower from the National Union of Teachers. She stated, “A narrow focus on scores is linked to the alienation and truancy of many children, unhappiness, and a failure to develop self-discipline and the soft skills.”